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Adverbs are similar to adjectives, but while the latter modify a noun, adverbs modify a verb (phrase) or another word, such as an adjective, a numeral, or another adverb. Lugamun has two basic kinds of adverbs: plain adverbs and ku-adverbs. Both types are placed after the word they modify.

Note: This placement is for consistency with how adjectives are placed in Lugamun.

Ku-adverbs are easily recognizable by having the particle ku in front of them. Plain adverbs, on the other hand, have no specific marker in front of them.

Plain adverbs

Plain adverb these words are only used as adverbs, they cannot modify nouns. (XXX Improve this wording since pia can also modify noun (phrases), see the examples.) They include:

  • baru – just, recently (refers to the recent past)
  • kwai – soon, be about to (refers to the near future)
  • pia – also, too
  • rubama – perhaps, maybe (expresses that something is possible, but not certain)

Plain adverbs are typically placed at the end of the phrase they modify. This sometimes allows expressing nuances that are difficult to clearly express in English.

Mi pia xwo inglis. – I too speak English. (not just you)
Mi xwo inglis pia. – I speak English too. (not just Lugamun)
Mi nulis pia inglis. – I also write English. (I don’t just speak it)

In verb chains, adverbs are placed after the verb which they modify, which may not always be the last verb in the chain.

Mi [hope] tu miru kwai ya. – I hope to see her/him soon.

XXX Add another example where it’s not the last verb.

Adverbs and adverbial expressions referring to the verb (and hence the whole clause) may also be placed elsewhere in the clause, as long as they are placed between rather than within phrases and provided they are unlikely to be misunderstood as referring to the preceding phrase rather than to the verb. Such free placement is especially common with adverbs describing the time when an event took place. Note that anything placed at the beginning of the clause will always be considered as somewhat emphasized compared to neutral placement.

The following two sentences are relatively common ways of expressing the underlying notion.

Safirja (li) finu cwan kwai manto (ya). – Soon the traveler took off his cloak. (this is the most typical and most neutral way of expressing this)
Kwai safirja (li) finu cwan manto (ya).(same meaning, but with a slightly stronger emphasis on the “soonishness” of the act)

The following alternatives are also possible, but much rarer.

Safirja kwai (li) finu cwan manto (ya).
Safirja (li) finu cwan manto (ya) kwai.


Most adverbs are derived from adjectives by placing the marker ku between the adjective and the word or expression it modifies.

Ya nulis ku hau. – She/He writes well.
wanita daki ku [amazing] – an amazingly intelligent woman

Any adjective can be turned into an adjective in such a manner, if it makes sense to do so.

Ku-adverbs can be modified by determiners, which are placed before the ku.

Ya nulis ingi ku hau. – She/He writes very well.

(You could also express this using reduplication, saying: Ya nulis ku hau hau.)

They can also be modified by other adverbs, which are placed after the adverb to which they refer.

Ya li tenda ku daki ku [amazing]. – He/She acted amazingly intelligently. / He/She acted in an amazingly intelligent way.

Adverbial phrases

Some ideas that might be represented as adverbs in other languages are expressed using prepositional phrases instead. These include kom ta ‘such, like that’.

en/grammar/adverbs.txt · Last modified: 2022-09-16 22:16 by christian

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