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Time expressions

(This may be called “adjuncts of time”; generally adjuncts give additional information on matters as such manner, time, place.)

Time expressions are noun phrases or prepositional phrases that express when something takes place. Noun phrases used as time expressions don’t need a preposition in front of them.

“Naked” time expressions (not introduced by a preposition) are most commonly placed either after the object (or after the verb, if there is no object) or between subject and verb (in front of any verb markers that the clause may contain). They can also be placed after a prepositional phrase. It is also possible to place them at the start of a clause, giving them a slight emphasis. Rarely are they placed between verb and object (but it is not wrong to do so).

Time expressions include:

den tali – tomorrow
si den – today
den laste – yesterday
si tem – now
ke tem – when
ol tem – always
no tem – never

XXX Give further examples and explain usage.

XXX Also explain prepositional time expressions such as ‘since yesterday’, ‘until next year’, ‘from Mai to December’. They are most typically placed after the object.

Place expressions

Place expressions are noun phrases or prepositional phrases that express where something takes place. They are placed in the same manner as time expressions.

Prepositional phrases expressing a location often start with the word ni ‘in, at, on’. Noun phrases used as place expressions without a preceding preposition generally have ples ‘place’ as their head noun. They include:

aru ples – somewhere
eni ples – anywhere
ke ples – where
no ples – nowhere, anywhere (in negated sentences)
ol ples – everywhere
otra ples – somewhere else, elsewhere
si ples – here
ta ples – (over) there

Before place expressions starting with ni, the copula xi is optional and often omitted.

Mi (xi) ni London. – I’m in London.

XXX Give some usage examples. Give some prepositional place expressions as examples and explain their usage too.

Expressing pain and other bodily feelings

To express that somebody has a headache or similar experiences involving a body part, one typically uses the affected body part as subject (APiCS 66).

Mis tobu bole. – I have a headache. / My head hurts.

Addressing people

san ‘Mr., Mrs., Miss’ is commonly used as a polite form of address, either in front of a person’s name or stand-alone.

XXX Give examples.


XXX These include:

salam – hello
xukur – thank (verb), thanks (noun), thank you (interjection)

en/grammar/expressions.txt · Last modified: 2023-02-02 12:15 by christian

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