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Reduplication means to duplicate a word in order to modify its meaning.
Reduplication for intensity and long duration
In Lugamun, adjectives and adverbs can be reduplicated in order to make them more intense – this is similar to placing ingi ‘very’’ before them.
hau – good
hau hau – very good, excellent
mali – small
mali mali – very small, tiny
This meaning also applies when adjectives are used as verbs:
Ta ruma (xi) gran gran! – That house is (really) huge!
If other verbs are reduplicated, this indicates an activity going on for a long time:
Ya li nulis nulis [until] nait wan. – He/She wrote and wrote until late at night.
Making adverbs from prepositions
Another use of reduplication is the formation of adverbs from short prepositions. In these cases, the resulting adverb is written as a single word.
gen – (together) with
gengen – together
su – under, below
susu – down, below, downward(s)
Wanita li go gen man. – The woman went with the man.
Wanita wa man li go gengen. – The woman and the man went together.
Reduplication is only used with short prepositions that have just a single syllable. With longer prepositions, the result of reduplication would be a bit heavy (four syllables or more). Therefore ku is used to derive adverbs from prepositions with two or more syllables (just as from adjectives).
estra – extra-, outside (prefix + preposition)
ku estra – outside, outward (adverb)